Composting : My Waste , My Responsibility

Food scraps and yard waste currently make up to 20to30% of what we throw away, and should be composted instead.


What is composting :  an organic material

It’s a Biological decomposition of organic material into humus-like substance called compost.


Why composting :

Reduces need for chemical fertilizers

As it enrich soil, helping retain moisture

Rise in garbage piles in landfills

Encourages the production and fungi that breakdown organic matter to create humus, a rich nutrient-filled material which reduces methane emissions from landfills.

Contamination of ground water


The science of composting :

There are many different ways to make compost. Helpful tools required such as pitchforks, square point shovel or machetes and spray bottle. Regular mixing or turning of the compost and some water will help maintain the compost.

Macro organisms

Larger decomposers like mites, centipedes, sow bugs, snails, millipedes, springtails, spiders, slugs, beetles, ants, flies, nematodes, flatworms, rotifers and earthworms.

They grind, bite, suck, tear and chew materials into smaller pieces.


Aerobic Bacteria- most important decomposers

Actnomycetes –higher form of bacteria responsible for earthly smell of compost

Fungi-break down cellulose and lignin


Composting basics :

Browns :

This includes materials such as dead leaves, branches and twigs.

Greens :

This includes materials such as grass clippings, vegetables waste, fruit scraps, and coffee gounds.

Water :

Having the right amount of water, greens and brown is important for compost development.

Inoculators :

Buttermilk, Cow dung Slurry, Fermented rice water, Ready cow dung or vermin-compost if available

Your compost pile should have an equal amount of browns to greens. You should also alternate layers of organic materials of different-sized particles. The brown materials provide carbon for your compost, the green material provide nitrogen, and the water provides moisture to help breakdown the organic matter.

What to compost and what not :


S.No. Can compost Cannot compost
1 Fruits , Vegetables, Eggshells Coal and Charcoals ashes..
2 Coffee grounds and filters Dairy products eg. Buttermilk, curd, egg
3 Tea bags Diseased or insects ridden plants
4 Nut shells Fat, Grease or oils
5 Shredded Newspapers Pet waste
6 Cardboard
7 Paper, Grass clippings
8 Houseplants, hay & straw
9 Leaves, Sawdust & wood chips
10 Cotton and Wool Rags
11 Dryers and Vacuum Cleaners lint
12 Hair and fur
13 Fireplace ashes


Factors affecting the composting process

Air-Environmental key factor-regularly turning the pile with shovel

Moisture – 40 to 6-% only……not too less, not too much ( material should feel damp to hand)

Temperature : moderately higher temperature in the pile= fast decomposition process

Too high or too low temp = slowing the composting process

Particle size of material – reducing materials to smaller particles

Volume of the pile


How to compost at home

Backyard Composting

Select dry, shady spot near a water source for your compost pile or bin

Add brown and green materials as they are collected, making sure large pieces are chopped or shredded.

Moisture dry materials as they are added.

Once your compost pile is established mix green clipping.

When material at the bottom is dark and rich in color, your compost is ready to use.


 Indoor Composting

Use Bins, Pots, Bucket

Properly managed compost bin will not attract pest or rodents and will not smell bad.


What is we Wet Waste and Dry Waste

Flower & fruit garden waste Paper, Plastic glass, anything that can be kept for an extended period without decomposting