Food scraps and yard waste currently make up to 20to30% of what we throw away, and should be composted instead.
What is composting : an organic material
It’s a Biological decomposition of organic material into humus-like substance called compost.
Why composting :
Reduces need for chemical fertilizers
As it enrich soil, helping retain moisture
Rise in garbage piles in landfills
Encourages the production and fungi that breakdown organic matter to create humus, a rich nutrient-filled material which reduces methane emissions from landfills.
Contamination of ground water
The science of composting :
There are many different ways to make compost. Helpful tools required such as pitchforks, square point shovel or machetes and spray bottle. Regular mixing or turning of the compost and some water will help maintain the compost.
Larger decomposers like mites, centipedes, sow bugs, snails, millipedes, springtails, spiders, slugs, beetles, ants, flies, nematodes, flatworms, rotifers and earthworms.
They grind, bite, suck, tear and chew materials into smaller pieces.
Aerobic Bacteria- most important decomposers
Actnomycetes –higher form of bacteria responsible for earthly smell of compost
Fungi-break down cellulose and lignin
Composting basics :
This includes materials such as dead leaves, branches and twigs.
This includes materials such as grass clippings, vegetables waste, fruit scraps, and coffee gounds.
Having the right amount of water, greens and brown is important for compost development.
Buttermilk, Cow dung Slurry, Fermented rice water, Ready cow dung or vermin-compost if available
Your compost pile should have an equal amount of browns to greens. You should also alternate layers of organic materials of different-sized particles. The brown materials provide carbon for your compost, the green material provide nitrogen, and the water provides moisture to help breakdown the organic matter.
What to compost and what not :
|S.No.||Can compost||Cannot compost|
|1||Fruits , Vegetables, Eggshells||Coal and Charcoals ashes..|
|2||Coffee grounds and filters||Dairy products eg. Buttermilk, curd, egg|
|3||Tea bags||Diseased or insects ridden plants|
|4||Nut shells||Fat, Grease or oils|
|5||Shredded Newspapers||Pet waste|
|7||Paper, Grass clippings|
|8||Houseplants, hay & straw|
|9||Leaves, Sawdust & wood chips|
|10||Cotton and Wool Rags|
|11||Dryers and Vacuum Cleaners lint|
|12||Hair and fur|
Factors affecting the composting process
Air-Environmental key factor-regularly turning the pile with shovel
Moisture – 40 to 6-% only……not too less, not too much ( material should feel damp to hand)
Temperature : moderately higher temperature in the pile= fast decomposition process
Too high or too low temp = slowing the composting process
Particle size of material – reducing materials to smaller particles
Volume of the pile
How to compost at home
Select dry, shady spot near a water source for your compost pile or bin
Add brown and green materials as they are collected, making sure large pieces are chopped or shredded.
Moisture dry materials as they are added.
Once your compost pile is established mix green clipping.
When material at the bottom is dark and rich in color, your compost is ready to use.
Use Bins, Pots, Bucket
Properly managed compost bin will not attract pest or rodents and will not smell bad.
What is we Wet Waste and Dry Waste
|WET WASTE||DRY WASTE|
|Flower & fruit garden waste||Paper, Plastic glass, anything that can be kept for an extended period without decomposting|